Infodesk

consultation

BENEFITS:

Immunomodulatory property:
By International Journal of AYURVEDA RESEARCH – IJAR 

The immuomodulatory property of Tinospora cordifolia is well documented.  Active compounds 11-hydroxymustakone, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, N-formylannonain, cordifolioside A, magnoflorine, tinocordiside and syringin has been reported to have potential immunomodulatory and cytotoxic effects.  They have been reported to function by boosting the phagocytic activity of macrophages, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human neutrophil cells, enhancement in nitric oxide (NO) production by stimulation of splenocytes and macrophages indicative of anti-tumor effects.  Aqueous Tinospora extracts has been also reported to influence the cytokine production, mitogenicity, stimulation and activation of immune effector cells.  In mice, Tinospora cordifolia extracts has been shown to result in up-regulation of IL-6 cytokine, resulting in acute reactions to injury, inflammation, activation of cytotoxic T cells, and B cell differentiation.  Active compounds in aqueous extracts like alkaloids, di-terpenoid lactones, glycosides, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, phenolics, aliphatic compounds or polysaccharides  in experimental rat model have been reported for their cytotoxic action. Dry stem crude extracts of Tinospora cordifolia with a polyclonal B cell mitogen, G1-4A on binding to macrophages have been reported to enhance immune response in mice by inducing secretion of IL-1, together with activation of macrophages. Reports onTinospora cordifolia in prevention of oxidative damage also exist.  The (1,4)-alpha-d-glucan (alpha-d-glucan), derived Tinospora cordifolia have been shown to activate human lymphocytes with downstream synthesis of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, invitro.  Synergistic effects of compounds in the immunomodulatory activity of Tinospora cordifolia are reported.

Hepato-protective Activity
By International Journal of AYURVEDA RESEARCH – IJAR 

Various Ayurvedic preparations of T. corfifolia are indicated in pandu (anemia) and kamla (jaundice). A clinical study has shown that Guduchi plays an important role in normalization of altered liver functions (ALT, AST).[80] The antihepatotoxic activity of T. cordifolia has been demonstrated in CCl4induced liver damage, normallising liver function as assessed by morphological, biochemical (SGPT, SGOT, serum alkaline phosphatase, serum bilirubin) and functional (pentobarbitone sleep time) tests. T. cordifolia revealed hepatoprotective action in goats.[81] A significant increment in the functional capacities of rat peritoneal macrophages was observed following T. cordifolia treatment.[82] Addition of extract for the first 6 weeks to chloroquine showed regression of spleen by 37% to 50% after 6 weeks and 45% to 69% after 6 months from the start of treatment. Likewise, decrease in IgM and increase in Hb, as well as wellbeing (Karnofsky performance scale), were observed.[83T. cordifolia prevents antitubercular drugs[84,85] and bile salts[86] induced hepatic damage, x and obstructive jaundice.[87] The extract has also exhibited in vitro inactivating property against hepatitis B and E surface antigens in 48 to 72 hours.[88]

LEARNING AND MEMORY ENHANCING ACTION:

Tinospora Cordifolia (Thunb): An Indispensable and Standardized Herb Parul Grover and Gulshan Bansal* Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala – 147002, India

Double blind, randomized placebo controlled 21 days clinical study on 30 healthy volunteers (age 18-30 years) using T. cordifolia has been reported for learning and memory enhancing activities through a battery of psychological tests aimed at studying visual memory, logical memory, verbal memory, attention span, and concentration[130]. The herb showed a significant increase in verbal learning and memory and logical memory of immediate and short term type without any significant untoward effects. Badar et al have conducted an 8 week randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial on 75 patients of allergic rhinitis and found that the herb’s extract significantly decreases all symptoms of allergic rhinitis in comparison to placebo[131]. A randomized controlled study on investigation of the immunomodulatory role of T. cordifolia as an adjuvant in surgical treatment of diabetic foot ulcers indicated the extract to be beneficial in immunomodulation for ulcer healing[132]. A clinical evaluation of the plant extract for immunostimulant action against the symptoms of HIV suggested the herb to be a useful adjunct even to the HIV/AIDS management[113].

Anti-diabetes property
By International Journal of AYURVEDA RESEARCH – IJAR 

The stem of Tinospora cordifolia is widely used in the therapy of diabetes by regulating the blood glucose in traditional folk medicine of India. It has been reported to mediate its anti-diabetic potential through mitigating oxidative stress (OS), promoting insulin secretion and also by inhibiting gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis, thereby regulating blood glucose.Alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, and steroids as the major phytoconstituents of Tinospora cordifolia have been reported to play an anti-diabetic role. The isoquinoline alkaloid rich fraction from stem, including, palmatine, jatrorrhizine, and magnoflorine have been reported for insulin-mimicking and insulin-releasing effect both in vitro and in vivo. Oral treatments of root extracts have been reported to regulate blood glucose levels, enhance insulin secretion and suppress OS markers. Initiation and restoration of cellular defence anti-oxidant markers including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH), inhibition of glucose 6-phosphatase and fructose 1, 6-diphosphatase, restoration of glycogen content in liver was reported in in vitro The crude stem ethyl acetate, dichloromethane (DCM), chloroforms and hexane extracts of Tinospora cordifolia inhibited the enzyme’s salivary and pancreatic amylase and glucosidase  thus increasing the post-prandial glucose level and finds potential application in treatment of diabetes mellitus.
The root extract has been reported to decrease the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, hydroperoxides, ceruloplasmin and vitamin E diabetic rats. Oral administration of Tinospora cordifolia extract in “Ilogen-Excel” formulation (Ayurvedic herbal formulation) composed of eight medicinal plants including Curcuma longaStrychnos potatorumSalaciaoblongaTinospora cordifoliaVetivelia zizanioidesCoscinium fenestratumAndrographis paniculata, and Mimosa pudica is reported to reduce GSH and vitamin C in blood and urine glucose and lipids in the serum and tissues in alloxan diabetic rats with a subsequent decrease in body weight.  Decreased concentration of GSH, GPx, and SOD, catalase activity is reported in heart and brain of diabetic rats.  T. cardifolia root extract (TCE) has been reported to cause an increase in body weight, total hemoglobin and hepatic hexokinase and lowering hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase, serum acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in diabetic rats thus having hypoglycemic and hypolipidaemic effect.
The protective effects of TCE were reported in presence of higher levels of anti-oxidant molecules and enzymes. TCE has been shown to significantly counterbalance the diabetes-associated OS in the maternal liver by lowering the levels of malondialdehyde and ROS and the increased levels of GSH and total thiols.

Anti-cancer effects
By International Journal of AYURVEDA RESEARCH – IJAR 

The anti-cancer effects of Tinospora cordifolia are mostly studied in animal models. TCE have been shown to have a radioprotective role by significantly increase in body weight, tissue weight, testes-body weight ratio and tubular diameter and inhibit the harmful effects of sub-lethal gamma radiation on testes in male Swiss albino mice. In pre-irradiating mice, TCE significantly affected radiation induced rise in lipid peroxidation and resulted in the decline of GSH concentration in testes. Pre-treatment of HeLa cells by TCE have been shown to decrease the cell viability, increase LDH and decrease in GSH S-transferase activity.Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in TCE has been reported to stimulate the growth and proliferation of Human LNCaP cells (which are androgen-sensitive human prostate adenocarcinoma cells). Androgenic compounds in TCE act via androgen receptor. Newly isolated compounds like (5R, 10R)-4R, 8R-dihydroxy-2S, 3R: 15, 16-diepoxycleroda-13 (16), 17, 12S: 18,1S-dilactone (ECD), a diterpenoid from Tinospora cordifolia has been reported for its chemopreventive potential in diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats by decreasing anti-oxidant activities via SOD, CAT and detoxification enzymes like GSH, GPx and subsequent increase in the activities of the hepatic markers ((Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase)SGOT, (Serum Glutamic Pyruvate Transaminase) SGPT, LDH) and decreased serum transaminase level thus confirming its anti-tumor effects and promising application as a potent chemo preventive drug for HCC.

The radiosensitizing activity of DCM extract of Tinospora cordifolia has been reported in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) mice enabling tumor-free survival via depletion of GSH and glutathione-S-transferase by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage to tumor cells. TCE hexane fraction has been shown to block the G1 phase in EAC mice and cause apoptosis by the formation of apoptotic bodies, nuclear condensation, activation of caspase-3, decreased cell number and ascites volume, increased expression of pro-apoptotic gene, Bax, and decreased expression of anti-apoptotic gene, Bcl-2.TCE could induce a reduction of papillomas, tumor yield, tumor burden, and tumor weight while increase phase II detoxifying enzymesin skin carcinoma animal models. The effect of a hydroalcoholic (80% ethanol: 20% distilled water) extract of aerial roots of Tinospora cordifolia on Swiss albino mice revealed a significant increase in acid-soluble sulfhydryl (-SH), cytochrome P (450) contents, and enzyme activities of cytochrome P (450) reductase, cytochrome b5 reductase, GST, DT-diaphorase (DTD), SOD, catalase, GPX, and GR activity in the liver highlighting the chemopreventive role of Tinospora cordifolia against carcinogenicity.

In vivo anti-angiogenic activity of TCE in B16-F10 melanoma was detected by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1 β, IL-6, TNF-α, granulocyte monocyte-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and the vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF), increased production of anti-angiogenic agents IL-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 (TIMP-1) in the B16-F10 extract-treated animals.The polysaccharide fraction from Tinospora cordifolia was found to be very effective in reducing the metastatic potential of B16-F10 melanoma cells. Markers of neoplastic development were reduced significantly in the treated animals compared with the untreated control animals.

Most of the synthetic chemotherapeutic agents suffer from toxic side effects. The effect of Guduchi extracts was comparable or better than doxorubicin treatment.

Tinospora cordifolia: Anti-microbial activity
By International Journal of AYURVEDA RESEARCH – IJAR 

The methanol extracts of Tinospora cordifolia have been reported to have potential against microbial infections.[78] The anti-bacterial activity of Tinospora cordifolia extracts has been assayed againstEscherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter aerogene, and Serratia marcesenses (Gram-positive bacteria).[7880] In mice models, TCE has been reported to function in bacterial clearance and improved phagocytic and intracellular bactericidal capacities of neutrophils.[81] TCE has been reported of immunostimulant properties on macrophages.[82] Intra-mammary infusion of hydro-methanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifoliatreatment showed enhanced phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear cells in bovine subclinical mastitis.[39,83]

Anti-toxic effects
By International Journal of AYURVEDA RESEARCH – IJAR 

Tinospora cordifolia extracts have been reported to scavenge free radicals generated during aflatoxicosis. It exhibited protective effects by lowering thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and enhancing the GSH, ascorbic acid, protein, and the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes viz., SOD, CAT, GPx, Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) in kidney. Alkaloids such as a choline, tinosporin, isocolumbin, palmatine, tetrahydropalmatine, and magnoflorine from Tinospora cordifoliashowed protection against aflatoxin-induced nephrotoxicity. Tinospora cordifolia stem and leaves extract has shown hepatoprotective effect in Swiss albino male mice against lead nitrate induced toxicity.  Oral administration of plant extracts prevented the occurrence of lead nitrate induced liver damage. Decreased level of SOD, CAT and increased level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), ALP, and ACP were observed in mice suffering from lead toxicity.  Synergistic administration of aqueous extract of stem and leaf along with the lead nitrate increased the activities of SOD and CAT and decreased the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and ACP enzymes. Protective role of aqueous extract of stem and leaves of Tinospora cordifolia overcoming the toxic effects of lead is shown as its effects on the hematological values. Cyclophosphamide (CP) an anti-cancer drug has been reported to reduce the GSH content in both bladder and liver and lowered levels of cytokines Inerferon-γ and IL-2 an increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α. This effect could be reversed on Tinospora cordifolia treatment indicating the role of Tinospora cordifolia in overcoming CP induced toxicities in cancer treatment.
Anti-arthritic, anti-osteoporotic effects
By International Journal of AYURVEDA RESEARCH – IJAR 
Single or synergistic formulations of Tinospora cordifolia with Zingiber officinale has been used in rheumatoid arthritis treatment in traditional medicine.  Tinospora cordifolia have been reported to affect the proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of bone like matrix on osteoblast model systems in vitro and hence finds potential application as an anti-osteoporotic agent. Alcoholic extract ofTinospora cordifolia have been shown to stimulate the growth of osteoblasts, increasing the differentiation of cells into osteoblastic lineage and also increasing the mineralization of bone like matrix.  Ecdysteroids isolated from the plant have been reported of protein anabolic and anti-osteoporotic effects in mammals. Beta-Ecdysone (Ecd) from Tinospora cordifolia extracts have been reported to induce a significant increase in the thickness of joint cartilage, induce the osteogenic differentiation in mouse mesenchymal stem cells and to relieve osteoporosis in osteoporotic animal models. Further 20-OH-β-Ecd isolated from Tinospora cordifolia has been reported of its anti-osteoporotic effects  thus highlighting the role of Tinospora cordifolia in the treatment of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.
Anti-HIV effects
TCE has been shown to demonstrate a decrease in the recurrent resistance of HIV virus thus improving the therapeutic outcome.Anti-HIV effects of TCE was revealed by reduction in eosinophil count, stimulation of B lymphocytes, macrophages and polymorphonuclear leucocytes and hemoglobin percentage thus, revealing its promising role of application in management of the disease.

Anti-allergic Activity
T. cordifolia is used for the treatment of kasa (cough) and swasa (asthma), which is described in various texts of Ayurveda. T. cordifolia is traditionally used for the treatment of asthma, and the juice is also employed for the treatment of chronic coughs. In a clinical study, 100% relief was reported from sneezing in 83% of the patients on treatment with T. cordifolia,. Similary, there was relief from nasal discharge was reported in 69%; from nasal obstructions 61% and from nasal pruritus, in 71%. In placebo group, there was relief from sneezing only in 21% patients; from nasal discharge, in 16.2%; from nasal obstruction, in 17%; and from nasal pruritus, in 12%. Thus, T. cordifolia significantly decreased all symptoms of allergic rhinitis and was well tolerated. The anti-allergic and bronchodilator properties of an aqueous extract of the stem evaluated on histamine-induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs, capillary permeability in mice and mast cell disruption in rats showed that it significantly decreased bronchospasm induced by 5% histamine aerosol, decreased capillary permeability and reduced the number of disrupted mast cells.

EFFICACY OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS.
12/09/2013 Tinospora Cordifolia UPDATE
Badar VA, Thawani VR, Wakode PT, Shrivastava MP, Gharpure KJ, Hingorani LL, Khiyani RM.

The efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) extract in patients of allergic rhinitis was assessed in a randomized double blind, placebo controlled trial. Seventy-five patients were randomly given either TC or placebo for 8 weeks. They were clinically examined and Hb %, TLC, DLC and nasal smear was done. At the end of trial baseline investigations were repeated, drug decoded and results analyzed. With TC treatment 100% relief was reported from sneezing in 83% patients, in 69% from nasal discharge, in 61% from nasal obstruction and in 71% from nasal pruritus. In placebo group, there was no relief in 79% from sneezing, in 84.8% from nasal discharge, in 83% from nasal obstruction, and in 88% from nasal pruritus. The difference between TC and placebo groups was highly significant. TLC increased in 69% patients in drug treated group and in only 11% with placebo. After TC, eosinophil and neutrophil count decreased and goblet cells were absent in nasal smear. After placebo, decrease in eosinophil and neutrophil count was marginal and goblet cells were present. TC significantly decreased all symptoms of allergic rhinitis. Nasal smear cytology and leukocyte count correlated with clinical findings. TC was well tolerated.

Comparable efficacy of standardized Ayurveda formulation and hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQS) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA): a randomized investigator-blind controlled study; Chopra A, Saluja M, Tillu G, Venugopalan A, Narsimulu G, Handa R, Bichile L, Raut A, Sarmukaddam S, Patwardhan B; Clinical Rheumatology (Jul 2011)

 Source: Clin Rheumatol

  • hydroxychloroquine
  • meloxicam
  • Pain Management
  • paracetamol
  • prednisolone

Hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQS) is a popular disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) despite modest efficacy and toxicity. Ayurveda (ancient India medicinal system) physicians treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with allegedly safer herbal formulations. We report a head-to-head comparison in an exploratory drug trial. The objective is to compare standardized Ayurvedic formulations and HCQS in the treatment of RA. One hundred twenty-one patients with active moderately severe RA (ACR 1988 classified) were randomized into a 24-week investigator-blind, parallel efficacy, three-arm (two Ayurvedic and HCQS) multicenter drug trial study; polyherb (Tinospora cordifolia and Zingiber officinale based) and monoherb (Semecarpus anacardium). Study measures included joint counts (pain/tenderness and swelling), pain visual analogue scale, global disease assessments, and health assessment questionnaire. Oral meloxicam (fixed-dosage schedule) was prescribed to all patients during the initial 16 weeks. Patients on prednisolone could continue a fixed stable dose (<7.5 mg daily). Rescue oral use of paracetamol was permitted and monitored. All groups matched well at baseline. An intent-to-treat analysis (ANOVA, significance P < 0.05) did not show significant differences by treatment groups. In the polyherb, monoherb, and HCQS arms, 44%, 36%, and 51%, respectively, showed ACR 20 index improvement. Several efficacy measures improved significantly in the HCQS and polyherb groups with no difference between the groups (corrected P). However, the latter was individually superior to monoherb. Only mild adverse events (gut and skin, and none withdrew) were reported with no differences between the groups. Forty-two patients dropped out. This preliminary drug trial controlled for HCQS demonstrated a standardized Ayurvedic polyherb drug to be effective and safe in controlling active RA. A better-designed study with a longer evaluation period is recommended.

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences (JPBMS), Vol. 09, Issue 09

Evaluation Of Tinospora cordifolia For Antiurolithiatic Potential.
Goyal Parveen Kumar*1(M.Pharm.,PGDPL), Mittal Arun2 (M.Pharm.), Kumar Rishi3 (M.Pharm.)

1 Department of Pharmacology, Hindu College of Pharmacy, Sonepat-131001, Haryana (India)
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, Hindu College of Pharmacy, Sonepat-131001, Haryana (India)
3 Department of Pharmacognosy, IIMT College of Pharmacy, Greater Noida, India-201306

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) Miers (Family: Menispermaceae) on calcium oxalate crystallization in urolithiasis.Calcium oxalate crystallization was induced by the addition of 0.01M sodium oxalate solutions in synthetic urine. The effect of extract (50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 μg/ml) was studied by time course measurement of turbidity in presence or absence of inhibitor (extract) at 620 nm for ten minutes by means of a spectrophotometer. The comparison between turbidimetric slopes with and without inhibitor gave percentage inhibition of crystallization hence the effectiveness of extract, and by comparing the photomicrographs with and without inhibitor, we concluded that T. cordifolia stem extract remarkably inhibited the calcium oxalate crystal formation hence can be stated to have antiurolithiatic potential.
Keywords: Urolithiasis, Calcium oxalate, Tinospora cordifolia, Ethanolic extract.

Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of T. cordifolia stem have inhibitory effect on CaOx crystallization thus may be beneficial in the treatment of urolithiasis but there is a need of detailed investigation in elaborated pre clinical experimentation and clinical trials to establish the use of plant

 

Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Dec;254(1-2):339-46.

Dose- and time-dependent effects of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and histopathological data over a period of 90 days.

Shara MOhia SEYasmin TZardetto-Smith AKincaid ABagchi MChatterjee ABagchi DStohs SJ.

Source Department of Pharmacy Sciences, School of Pharmacy and Health Professions, Creighton University Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68178, USA.

Abstract

(-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia (family Guttiferae), is a popular supplement for weight management. The dried fruit rind has been used for centuries as a condiment in Southeastern Asia to make food more filling and satisfying. A significant number of studies highlight the efficacy of Super CitriMax (HCA-SX, a novel 60% calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia) in weight management. These studies also demonstrate that HCA-SX promotes fat oxidation, inhibits ATP-citrate lyase (a building block for fat synthesis), and lowers the level of leptin in obese subjects. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation toxicity studies have demonstrated the safety of HCA-SX. However, no long-term safety of HCA-SX or any other (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract has been previously assessed. In this study, we have evaluated the dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX in Sprague-Dawley rats on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, liver and testis weight, expressed as such and as a % of body weight and brain weight, and histopathological changes over a period of 90 days. The animals were treated with 0, 0.2, 2.0 and 5.0% HCA-SX as feed intake and the animals were sacrificed on 30, 60 or 90 days of treatment. The feed and water intake were assessed and correlated with the reduction in body weight. HCA-SX supplementation demonstrated a reduction in body weight in both male and female rats over a period of 90 days as compared to the corresponding control animals. An advancing age-induced marginal increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation was observed in both male and female rats as compared to the corresponding control animals. However, no such difference in hepatic DNA fragmentation and testicular lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation was observed. Furthermore, liver and testis weight, expressed as such and as a percentage of body weight and brain weight, at 30, 60 and 90 days of treatment, exhibited no significant difference between the four groups. Taken together, these results indicate that treatment of HCA-SX over a period of 90 days results in a reduction in body weight, but did not cause any changes in hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, or histopathological changes.

Phytother Res. 2013 Oct 17. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5076.
Hypolipemic Effect of Garcinia cambogia in Obese Women.
Vasques CASchneider RKlein-Júnior LCFalavigna APiazza IRossetto S.
Source – Grupo de pesquisa em saúde humana e ambiente, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Feevale, RS-239, 2755, 93352-000, Novo Hamburgo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.

Abstract

Garcinia cambogia seems to promote weight reduction and improvement on lipid profile by its major compound, hydroxycitric acid (HCA), blocking ATP-citrate lyase, potentially inhibiting lipogenesis. Furthermore, it is suggested that its extract is able to change the adipokine levels. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyse the effect of G. cambogia on the lipid profile, endocrine, calorimetric and anthropometric parameters of obese women. The women (BMI > 25 kg/m2 ; age 25-60 years), divided in treated (n = 30) and control (n = 13) groups, received 2.4 g (800 mg 3×/day) of garcinia extract (50% of HCA) or placebo during 60 days, respectively, as well as dietary control. Weight, BMI, waist-hip ratio and percentage of fat mass, resting metabolic rate, respiratory coefficient, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, HDL and LDL, leptin and insulin serum levels were evaluated. TG was significantly reduced in the treated group (p = 0.0002) and the post-treatment variation was different compared to the placebo group (p = 0.04). No significant response was observed on other variables of the lipid profile, or on the anthropometric and calorimetric parameters. Leptin and insulin levels did not change significantly after the treatment. The short-term treatment with G. cambogia demonstrated a hypotriglyceridemic effect, which does not appear to be related to changes in leptinemia.

Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

This drug (Garcinia cambogia) is very effective to overcome obesity or atherosclerosis
Deepak Shrivastava 

The fruit of Garcinia cambogia has been traditionally used in food preparation and cooking. In Ayurveda,it is said that sour flavors such as those from Garcinia activate digestion. Garcinia is considered to make foods more filling and satisfying and has been used routinely for many centuries with no toxicity. Garcinia and its active ingredient, HCA hydroxycitric acid) have been extensively studied for over thirty years and found to be effective in inhibiting lipogenesis, suppressing appetite, and encouraging weight-loss in humans.Garcinia cambogia is a diminutive purple fruit native to India and Southeast Asia. It is used as a weight loss aid, but the evidence is
inconclusive. The rind is rich in hydroxycitric acid (HCA) and has been used for centuriesthroughout Southeast Asia as a food preservative, flavoring agent and carminative (induces expulsion of gas from stomach or intestines). According to Indian folk tradition, Garcinia cambogia is used for rheumatism and bowel complaints. Neither acute nor chronic toxicity is reported with regular consumption of garcinia products as either food or tonics. These products have been used routinely in the coastal areas of South Asia for centuries and they continue to be consumed in large amounts. There is preliminary evidence for the use of garcinia in exercise performance and weight loss.

Pharmacognostic Study [5, 6]
Botanical Name: Garcinia cambogia
Family: Guttiferae
Plant Parts Used: Fruit rind
Common/Trade Names: Vilati – Amli Sanskrit and Hindi Names:[7] Vrikshamla
Other Common Names: Brindle berry, brindall berry, garcinia, malabar tamarind, gambooge,gorikapuli, uppagi, garcinia kola, mangosteen oil tree. Habitat: India and South East Asia. Chemical Constituents:[8]

The plant contains various chemical constituents such as Xanthones, Benzophenones,Garcinol and plant acids like (-) Hydroxy Citric Acid, Maleic acid, Citric acid. HCA is naturally occurring fruit acid found in the outer layer covering of the fruits of Garcinia cambogia. HCA is highly unstable and therefore extracted as a salt of preferably as calcium or
potassium.

CONCLUSION
Garcinia helps to reduce out the chances of stroke, shock, congestive heart failure,
hypertension, kidney failure, diabetes which may occur due to excessive obesity. This drug (Garcinia cambogia) is abundantly available in China.Capsule dosage form is available in market all over the world, till date they don’t get success in other dosage forms like parental or oral sustained release tablet. Now Indian pharmaceutical companies are working on oral sustained release tablet (Highlight) with full of enthusiasam to put that drug in the category of anti hyperlipidemic drug which is very advantageous as compared to conventional synthetic anti hyperlipidemic drug.

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BMI FORMULA

BMI = ( Weight in Kilograms / ( Height in Meters x Height in Meters )

BMI CLASSIFICATION

18.5 or less               Underweight

18.5 to 24.99            Normal Weight

25 to 29.99               Overweight

30 to 34.99              Obesity (Class 1)

35 to 39.99              Obesity (Class 2)

40 or greater           Morbid Obesity

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